To Kill a Mockingbird


Themes and Setting
The Trial

Ad Astra Per Aspera
     title of Maycomb County Halloween Pageant. (266) {255}
     "from the mud to the stars" (271) {260}
     [Satate Motto of Kansas, where Lee traveled with
     Truman Capote to do research for In Cold Blood]
     Alabama place---fire truck came from there (78)
Appleton, Victor
     author --- drama based on his work (14) {12}
     place --- "hasn't snowed since A" -- Mr. Avery (73)
     [former village in Virginia where Robert E. Lee
     surrendered to Ulysses S. Grant on April 9, 1865]
Atkinson, Miss Maudie
     adult -- neighbor, had cow, made good cakes,
     from Finch's Landing, nearly same age as Jack
     (50) {48}
     her shoulder sloped like that because she was a
     Buford (142) {134}
Avery, Mr. Dick
     adult --- boarded across from Lafayette Dubose,
     sneezed until 9 o'clock (58) {55}
     whittled (67) {64}, Dick (77) {74}

Baldwin County
     Alabama place --- "...Chinese, and the Cajuns down
     yonder" (239) {229}
Barber, Tutti and Frutti
     adults --- real names Sarah & Frances, maiden
     laides, sisters lived in only Maycomb residence
     boasting a cellar, etc. (265) {254}
Barker's Eddy
     local place --- Crazy Addie drowned himself there
     (15) {13}
     Scout threatens to drown self (31) {29}
     at end of dirt road off the Meridian Highway about
     a mile from town, Jem taught Dill to swim there
     (252) {242}
Battle of Hastings
     event --- "...source of same to some members of
     the family that we had no recorded ancestors on
     either side of..." (9) {8}
     [decisive battle in Norman Conquests of
     England, 1066]
Bay St. Louis
     Alabama place --- Dill saw Siamese twins leave
     train there (42) {40}
     Alabama place --- "those B'll look plain puny when
     I get started!" - Miss Maudie (81) {77}
     [gardens known for azaleas & chyrsanthemums,
     in Theodore, on coast]
     adult --- cout reporter, chain-smoked (222) {212}
Bibb, William Wyatt
     adult --- Governor, sent surveyors to establish
     Maycomb (140) {132}
Billups, Mr. X
     adult --- "X's his name, not his initial." - Jem (169)
Birmingham News, the
     newspaper --- (157) {149}
Blackstone's Commentaries
     book --- Calpurnia taught Zeebo to read from (135)
     [Commentaries on the Laws of England, the best
     known description of the doctrines of English
     law, by Sir William Blackstone, 1723-1780]
Blount, Miss
     adult --- teacher of 6th grade, native Maycombian
     (28) {26}
Boone, Agnes
     child --- butterbean in Halloween pageant (266)
Bragg, Braxton
     adult --- given names of Mr. Underwood (167) {158}
     [commander of Western Confederate Army
     during the Civil War]
Brooke, Lily
     adult? --- cousin of Scout (142) {134}
Brown's Mule
     household --- smell in First Purchase churchyard
     (128) {121}
     [chewing tobacco]
Bryan, William Jennings
     "'d think WJB was speakin" - Stephanie
     Crawford (170) {162}
     [1860-1925, politician famed as public speaker]
     surname --- All the Bufords Walk Like That (142)
Buford, Dr. Frank
     adult --- father of Miss Maudie, Finch's Landing
     landowner, gardening obsession kept him poor
     (50) {48}
     surname --- Jem said Scout was one (23) {22} *17*
     [reference to Bullfinch's Mythology, a collection
     of Greek myths]
Burroughs, Edgar Rice
     author --- drama based on his work (14) {12}

     adult --- housekeeper and cook of the Finchs' (12) {10}
     mother of Zeebo, was taught to read by Maudie's
     aunt (135) {128}
     flower --- Jem cuts those of Mrs. Dubose (111) {107}
     Mrs. Dubose sends one to Jem (121) {116}
     [it's the official flower of the KKK] - Mr. Bucolo said in class.
     car --- always one in the Finch garage (159) {151}
     Alabama place --- Barber sisters emigrated from in
     1911 (265) {254}
Clark's Ferry
     Alabama place --- 3rd fire tuck came from there, 60
     miles away (265) {254}
     place --- ancestral home of Simon Finch (9) {8}
     [country in southwest England]
     surname --- No Crawford Minds His Own Business
     (141) {134}
Crawford, Miss Stephanie
     adult --- "neighborhood scold", told scissors story
     (17) {15}
     "English Channel of gossip" (254) {244}
     [town gossip]
Crazy Addie
     adult --- mutilated people's chickens and
     household pets, drowned self in Barker's Eddy
     (15) {13}
     [My note: didn't the town realize that he didn't
     kill the chickens? They kept thinking it was
     him anyway though ...]
Crenshaw, Mrs.
     adult --- local seamstress "had as much
     imagination as Mrs. Merriweather" (266) {256}
     rumored that Mrs. Dubose kept CSA pistol
     among shawls (108) {104} *99*
     [Confederate States of America --- southern
     side of Civil War]
     surname --- from Old Sarum (17) {15} *10*
     Cunninghams married Coninghams "until the
     spelling of names was academic" (176) {164}
Cunningham, Walter Sr.
     adult --- paid by entailment, in crowd at jailhouse (164)
Cunningham, Walter Jr.
     child --- has no lunch money (25) {24} *20*
     father also named Walter, went to dinner (29) {28}

Davis Elmer
     adult --- irked Atticus with Hitler news on radio (259)
     [1890 - 1958, news broadcaster and writer-director,
     analyst for CBS]
Davis, Miss Emily
     adult --- dipped snuff in private (170) {161}
Deas, Link
     adult --- almost hit by Scout's baton (111) {106} *102*
     employed Tom Robinson, made outburst during trial
     (207) {198}
     stood up for Helen Robinson (262) {252}
Deer's Pasture
     local place --- short cut to get to Radley's (64) {58} *54*
     Dill & Scout crept around on Sundays (159) {150}
     surname --- The Truth is Not in the Delafields (142)
     never take a check from a Delafield without a
     discreet call to the bank (142) {134}
Dewey Decimal System
     "new way they're teachin' the first grade" (25) {23} *18*
     [system --- for organizing books in libraries]
Dow, Lorenzo
     author --- diaries read by Scout & Atticus (24) {22}
     [brother of Brigham Young, Mormon]
     film --- seen by Dill (13) {12} *7*
     [1931, 4 stars, Bela Lugosi, dir: Tod Browning]
Dubose, Mrs. Henry Lafayette
     adult --- lived 2 doors north (12) {11} *6*
     addicted to morphine (120) {115} *111*
     weighed 98 lbs (121) {116} *112*

     "...when the Finches were in E..." - Jem to Scout
     (240) {229}
Egyptian Period
     studied by Jem in 6th grade (67) {64} *59*
     mentioned by Atticus at trial (218) {208}
     [Albert, 1879-1955, physicist]
Enfield Prison Farm
     Alabama place --- Tom held there, 70 miles away in
     Chester Country (231) {221}
     Scout saw, exercise yard (250) {239}
English Channel
     Stephanie Crawford was "EC of gossip" (254) {244}
     [waterway separating Great Britain & France]
     sent rolls morning after trial from down at the hotel
     (226) {216}
     place --- Jem said Jack said they "mighta come straight
     out of Ethiopia durin' the Old Testament" (173)
     [country in Northeast Africa]
Evertt, J. Grimes
     adult --- missionary known to Grace Merriweather
     (243) {233}
     desperately needed our prayers (264) {253}
Eula May
     adult --- town telephone operator (102) {98} *93*
     surname --- Atticus said they "had been the disgrace of
     Maycomb for 3 generations" (37) {35} *30*
     "...none of them had done an honest day of work
     in his recollection..." *30*
     lived behind the town garbage dump (181) {172}
Ewell, Bob
     adult --- father of Mayella, in court swears in as
     "Robert E. Lee Ewell" (181) {172}
Ewell, Burris
     child --- had cootie, attended school one day a year, son
     of Bob (32) {31} *26*
     [cootie = louse/lice]
Ewell, Mayella
     child [woman---child?] --- allegedly raped by Tom
     Robinson when 19 years old (221) {211}

Farrow, Gertude
     adult --- attended Missionary meeting, 2nd most devout
     woman in M (245) {235}
     surname --- Simon, Atticus, Alexandra, John Hale,
     Jeremy Atticus, Jean Louise
Finch, Alexandra
     adult --- aunt, husband: Jimmy Hancock, son: Henry,
     grandson: Francis Hancock (85) {82} *80*
Finch, Atticus
     adult --- almost 50, nickname: Ol' One-Shot (106)
     [Possibly named for Herodes Atticus, 101-177, most
     celebrated of the orators and writers of the Second
     Sophistic, a movement that revitalized the teaching
     and practice of rhetoric in Greece in the 2nd
     century AD, or for Atticus Greene Haygood, [1839-1896],
     Methodist bishop and educator was an outspoken
     opponent of lynching and a pioneer of education for
     Black, or for Atticus 'Bishop' in Mullin, a Montgomery
     Advertiser reporter working in the 1930's.]
Finch, Ike
     adult --- country's sole Confederate veteran, had
     General Hood beard, visited once a year (84) {80} *76*
Finch, Jeremy Atticus
     child --- broke arm when nearly 13 (9) {7} *3*
     four years older than Scout (13) {10} *3*
Finch, John Hale [Jack]
     adult --- uncle, 10 years younger than Atticus (11) {9} *5*
     studied medicine, lived in Nashville (50) {48}
     had cat named Rose Aylmer [named for Walter Savage
     Landor [1775-1864] poem] (86) {83} *78*
     [John Hale, 1806-1873, American lawyer, senator,
     and reformer who was prominent in the antislavery
Finch, Simon
     adult --- had 8 daughters, 1 son, nicknamed
     "Welcome Finch" (88) {84} *80*
Finch's Landing
     local place --- homestead of Finches (10) {8} *4*
     366 steps down bluff ending in a jetty (88) {84} *79*
First Purchase African M.E.
     place --- only church with steeple & ball, in Quarters
     outside south town limits, by old sawmill tracks,
     called First Purchase because it was paid for from
     the first earnings of freed slaves (128) {124}
Fisher, Miss Caroline
     adult --- teacher from Winston County, no more than
     21, crimson finger-nail polish (22) {20} *16*
     boarded at Miss Maudie's (22) {21}

Gates, Miss
     adult --- taught Scout's class about Hitler, overheard as
     racist hypocrite by Scout (260) {249}
     flower --- Mayella Ewell had 6 slop jars with red,
     "cared for tenderly", Miss Maudie did not like (182)
Gilmer, Horace
     adult --- solicitor from Abbotsville between 40 & 60
     years old, had slight cast in one eye (177) {168}
     Horace (198) {188}
     place --- mentioned by Miss Gates in school "G is
     a dictatorship" (258) {248}
     surname --- mother's maiden name, from Montgomery
     (12) {10}
Gray Ghost, the
     book --- bet by Dill (19) {17}, by Seckatary Hawkins
     (295) {283}
Green, Maxwell
     adult --- "court-appointed defenses were usually given
     to MG, Maycomb's latest addition to the bar ... should
     have had Tom Robinson's case" (228) {218}

Hancock, Francis
     child --- grandson of Alexandra, son of Jimmy H, lived
     in Mobile, 1 year older than Scout (86)
Hardy, Jim
     adult --- attended 1st Purchase, absent 5 Sundays and
     wasn't sick (132) {124}
Harris, Charles Baker [Dill]
     child --- Dill, "goin' on 7", from Meridian Mississippi
     (13) {11}
     surname --- "name synonymous with jackass" (11) {9} *5*
Haverford, Rachel
     adult --- lived next door, Dill's aunt, owned rat terrier
     (12) {11}
     had a glass of neat whiskey every morning (149)
Hawkins, Seckatary
     author - wrote The Gray Ghost, read by Atticus (295)
     [author of Stoner's Boy; Robert F. Schulkers,
     Cincinnati, Ohio, 1926 Illustrations by Carl B.
     Williams. Pseudonym of Robert Schulkers. The
     Seckatary Hawkins stories originally appeared
     as newspaper stories in the Cincinnati Enquirer.]
Heflin, Cotton Tom
     adult --- "You tell Cecil I'm about as radical as CTH" -
     Atticus to Scout (264) {253}
     [talented orator & Democrat Senator]
     cat - mentioned by Uncle Jack in story to Scout (95)
     [Samuel Johnson's cat. Johnson would go out and
     buy oysters for Hodge, so that the servants would not
     take a dislike to the animal from having to serve it
Howell, Dixie
     adult --- player in football magazine, Scout said looked
     like Jem (112) {107} *103*
     [popular U of AL football player in 1930's]
Hutson, Brother
     adult --- mentioned by Gertude Farrow at Missionary
     meeting (245) {235}

     book --- read by Jem to Miss Dubose, by "Sir Walter
     Scout" (115) {110} *109*

Jackson, Andrew
     adult --- (9) {8}
     [1767-1845, U.S. Military hero and 7th President]
Jackson, Constance
     adult --- attended 1st Purchase, erected only spite fence
     in history of Quarters (132) {124}
Jackson, Stonewall
     adult --- Cousin Ike talked about (84) {81}
     [Confederate Lieutenant - General]
Jacobs, Cecil
     child --- "walked a total of one mile per school day to
     avoid the Radley Place and old Mrs. Henry Lafayette
     Dubose" (41) {39} *35*
     recounted current event involving Adolf Hitler (257)
     cow in Halloween pageant (266) {255}
     scares Jem & Scout (269) {258}
     place --- Simon Finch worked his way there (9) {8} *5*
     [island in West Indies]
Jefferson, Thomas
     quoted by Atticus at trial (217) {207}
     [3rd President of the U.S., author of The Declaration
     of Independence]
     adult --- worked for Miss Dubose (111) {107} *106*
Jingle, Mr.
     adult --- Mayella sounded like (194) {185}
     [character in The Pickwick Papers by Charles
Jitney Jungle
     business --- Scout, Jem and Dill sheltered in
     door there (162) {153}
     [grocery store chain]
Johnson, Harry
     adult --- drove Mobile bus, had liver colored bird-dog
     named Tim Johnson (100) {96}
Johnson, Tim
     animal --- livered colored bird-dog, suspected of having
     rabies (100) {96}
Jones, Ruth
     adult --- the welfare lady (261) {251}
Jones, Mr. Tensaw
     adult --- voted the straight Prohibition ticket (170)

     adult --- drove Maycomb's hearse (249) {277}

Ladies' Law
     cited by Link Deas to Bob Ewell (263) {252}
     [The "Ladies' Law" states: "Any person who enters
     into, or sufficiently near to the dwelling house of
     another, and, in the presence or hearing of the
     family of the occupant thereof, or any member of
     his family; or any person who, in the presence or
     hearing of any girl or woman, uses abusive, insulting,
     or obscene language must, or conviction, be fined not
     more than two hundred dollars, and may also be imprisoned
     in the county jail, or sentenced to hard labor for the county
     for not more than six months." THE CODE OF
     ALABAMA, Vol. III --- CRIMINAL [Nashville,
     Tenn.: Marshall and Bruce Compant, 1907], p. 272.]
Levy, Sam
     adult --- Ku Klux paraded by his house one night (157)
Little, Chuck Little
     child --- read Uncle Natchell advertisement, 100 years
     old in his knowledge of cows (257) {247}
     was a real gentleman *26*
     adult --- woman who bothered Calpurnia at church
     (129) {121} *119*

Mardi Gras
     event --- Jem felt like he was going to (129) {120}
     [last day of Lenten carnival]
Mayco Drugstore
     business --- farmers studied enema bags in the window
     (145) {137}
     local place --- county seat, 20 miles east of Finch's
     Landing (10) {9}
     primary reason for existence: government; spared
     grubbiness (141) {133}
Maycomb Amanuensis Club
     club --- Alexandra was Secretary of (139) {131}
Maycomb Bank Building
     business --- Atticus moved his law office there after
     several years (160) {152}
     [Alice F. Lee had her law office there]
Maycomb, Colonel
     county named for, etc. (272) {260}
Maycomb Jail
     business --- between Tyndal's & Tribune, miniature
     gothic joke (161) {152}
Maycomb Tribune, the
     newspaper --- in Radley's house (17) {15}
     owned by Mr. B. B. Underwood (158) {150}
     published on Thursday (254) {243}
     [Monrow Journal still publishes on Thursdays. Was
     owned & edited by Lee's father]
Meridian Highway
     local place --- led to Barker's Eddy, good for hitching
     (252) {242}
     surname --- Every Third Merriweather is Morbid
     (141) {134}
Merriweather, Grace
     adult --- her mother sipped gin & maybe she did too
     (142) {134}
     composed original pageant entitled Maycomb
     County: Ad Astra Per Aspera (266) {255}
Merriweather, Sam
     adult --- committed suicide, mentioned by Alexandra
     (139) {132}
Mobile Press, the
     newspaper --- read by Atticus (113) {108}
Mobile Register, the
     newspaper --- read by Scout (23) {21}, (157) {148}
     [any of several versatile songbirds of the New World
     family Mimidae, order Passeriformes]
Montgomery Advertiser, the
     newspaper --- carried cartoon of Atticus (126) {118}
Mount Everest
     place --- Aunt Alexandra might have been analogous
     to: she was cold & there (85) {82}
     [29,028 feet, highest mountain in the world]
     people --- heard or misheard by Scout as Missionary
     meeting, Mrs. Merriweather gave report on (241)
     Scout learned more about (264) {253}

     National Recovery Act, stickers on cars and store windows,
     killed by "9 old men" (264) {254}
     [Roosevelt's measure for economic recovery, part of the
     New Deal]
Nova Scotia
     place --- Dill claimed to have visited (54) {52}
     [province on east coast of Canada, only Canadian
     place mentioned in Mockingbird]

O.K. Cafe
     business - dim organization, on north side of town
     square, Mrs. Dubose suggested Scout would end up
     waiting on tables there. (110) {106}
     trial watchers would overrun while jury was out
     (219) {210}
Old Sarum
     local place --- Cunninghams came from there (29) {27}
     [O S near Salisbury, England, an Early Iron Age fort
     taken over by the Romans.]
Optic, Oliver
     author --- drama basted on his work (14) {12}
     [pseudonym of William Taylor Adams, 1822-1897,
     American teacher and author of juvenile literate.]

     surname --- Alexandra said all P women were flighty
     (140) {132}
     place --- Nathan Radley lived there (19) {17}
     [city in Florida, 58 miles from Mobile]
Perkins, Mrs.
     adult --- attended Missionary meeting (247) {236}
Pinkham, Lydia E.
     adult --- Grace Merriweather may have sipped gin out
     of LEP bottles (142) {134}
     [maker and manufacturer of patent medicines in late
Popular Mechanics
     magazine --- read by Jem (232) {222}

     surname --- Old Mr., Mrs., Nathan, Arthur (9) {7}
     foot-washing Baptists (51) {49}
Radley, Arthur [Boo]
     adult --- lived 3 doors south (12) {11}
Radley, Nathan
     adult --- older brother of Boo, "bought cotton"
     returned from Pensacola when old Mr. R. died (19)
Raymond, Dolphus
     adult --- drank coca-cola outside courthouse, etc. (212)
Reeves, Annette
     adult --- Missionary Society met at her place on
     Tuesday (131) {123}
Reynolds, Agnes
     child --- daughter of Dr. R (277) {266}
Reynolds, Dr.
     adult --- Physician, tended Mr. Radley (19) {16}
     accepted entailments (28) {26}
     tended Mrs. Dubose (120) {115}
     tended Jem (278) {267}
Richardson, Carlow
     adult --- slow in contributing at 1st Purchase (133)
Robinson, Helen
     adult --- wife of Tom (131) {125}
Robinson, Sam
     child --- son of Tom & Helen (253) {242}
Robinson, Tom
     adult --- member of Calpurnia's church (83) {80}
     alleged to have raped Mayella Ewell on the night of
     November 21st (177) {168}
     35 years old, 3 children, etc. (202) {192}
     mentioned by Atticus at trial (218) {208}
     [1839 - 1937, U.S. industrialist and philanthropist, founder of
     the Standard Oil Company]
Roosevelt, Mrs.
     "...lost her mind coming down to Birmingham..."
     (247) {237}
     [Eleanor Roosevelt, 1884 - 1962, wife of Franklin,
     niece of Theodore. First Lady, 1933-45]
The Rover Boys
     [Series of books written by Arthur M. Winfield,
     pseudonym of Edward Stratemeyer. The Rover Boys
     are brothers Dick, Tom, and Sam. They are the sons
     of wealthy businessman Anderson Rover and live on
     a Hudson River valley farm with their uncle and
     aunt, Randolph and Martha Rover. They go to school
     at Putnam Hall.]

Seaton, Windy
     author --- writer of sports column read by Atticus (119)
Second Battle of Marne
     event --- how Miss Maudie swept down on nut-grass
     (49) {47}
     [1st WW offensive of allies against Germany]
     game --- played in Sunday School (127) {119}
     [from Daniel 3 of the Bible]
Simpson, Eunice Ann
     child --- tied to chair in Sunday School (127) {119}
St. Clair, Joshua S.
     adult --- wrote Meditations of JSStC, cousin, "went
     round the bend at University" (142) {135}
     jail was something like what JSStC might have
     designed (161) {152}
Slade, Mr. Jake
     adult --- cutting 3rd set of teeth (170) {161}
     adult --- worked for Grace Merriweather (245) {235}
     surname --- Dolphus Raymond was supposed to marry
     one but "after the rehearsal the bride went upstairs
     and blew her head off..." (172) {163}
Sweetly Sings the Donkey
     song --- "associated with liking fiddling..." (247) {222}
     [Sweetly Sings the Donkey / At the break of day / If you
     do not feet him / this is what he'll say / "Oh dear, oh my,
     / Oh dear, oh my, my, my!"]
Sykes, Reverend
     adult --- Reverend at First Purchase African M.E.
     (130) {122}
     "Miss Jean Louise, stand up. Your father's passin'."
     (224) {214}

Tarzan and the Ant Men
     book --- Scout was not to request enacting of (22) {20}
Tate, Heck
     adult --- Sheriff of Maycomb County, wore boots,
     lumber jacket, bullets in belt, etc. (102) {98}
     testified at trial (177) {168}
Taylor, Ann
     fat nondescript dog of Judge Taylor (262) {251}
Taylor, Bob
     adult --- works read by Judge, "fruity metaphors and
     florid diction" (262) {251}
     [author, orator, Governor, Senator]
Taylor, John
     adult --- judge (83) {80}
     threw Cunninghams case out of court after 9 hours of
     testimony on grounds of "Champertous connivance"
     (176) {168}
     not a Sunday-night churchgoer (261) {251}
     wife made divinity (270) {259}
     magazine --- read by Scout (39) {27}
     Alabama place --- site of asylum (17) {15}
Tyndal's Hardware
     business --- "You name it and we sell it", supplied fans at
     First Purchase African M.E. (130) {122}

Uncle Natchell
     story or advertisement read by Little Chick Little
     (257) {247}
     [spokesperson for Natural Chilean Nitrate of Soda --- a
     fertilizer advertised in the 1930's in newspapers]
Underwood, Braxton Bragg
     adult --- owned local paper, christened BB by father
     "in fey fit of humor", etc. (167) {158}, refreshed
     himself from a gallon jug of cherry wine

V. J. Elmore's
     business --- Scout got twirling baton there (109) {106}
     [Chain of variety stores founded by Virgil Jackson
     Elmore. By 1942 there were 42 stores in operation.
     The first Elmore store opened in Greenville, Butler
     County, in Novmerb 1934.]

Waller, Byron
     adult --- could play the violin (170) {161}
Wesley, John
     adult --- Simon Finch was mindful of strictures of (10)
Wheeler, Brigadier General Joe
     Dill claimed as grandfather (55) {52}
Winston Swamp
     local place --- "a place totally devoid of interest" (141)
Wrigley's Double-Mint
     food --- first gift from Boo, found in the tree by Scout
     (40) {38}

     adult --- collected Tim Johnson's body (106) {102}
     son of Calpurnia, led hymns at First Purchase
     African M.E. (131) {123}

  • ( ) = page reference, hardcover Mockingbird, Lippincott, 1960.
  • { } = page reference, paperback Mockingbird, Popular Library, 1977.
  • [ ] = information not in the book.
  • * * = If I catch the information from our book, I'll post it here.

I am unaware of how many copies there are in the world of To Kill a Mockingbird, and so the pages are different in each copy. If these pages are wrong according to your book, please tell me in the contact field to the right. I apologize for any errors.

I do not take full credit for the information below. I looked up a bunch of them and added many that I thought were necessary. Not all of these were my ideas alone.

I worked on this so hard that I thought it was necessary for me to write this here:
I retyped everything and added notes on almost every one of these on this page. This page alone, took over three straight hours without a single break to rest my eyes. I have a headache that doesn't seem human, but it seems worth it once it's done with.